El Ghriba Synagogue
Interior of the El Ghriba Synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia.


Judaism, the oldest of the monotheistic religions, is 3500 years old. Jews believe that God made a promise (called the first covenant) to Abraham that he would be the father of a great people if he followed God’s instructions. Jews believe that God renewed the covenant (the second covenant) with Moses, who led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt. God also revealed the Ten Commandments to the Jews as a set of rules to follow.


The Jewish holy book is the Torah, which provides the first five books for the Bible. Jews also study the Talmud, the most significant collection of Jewish interpretations of the Torah. In the Arab World, there have been large populations of Arab Jews in Iraq, Yemen, Syria, Egypt, and Morocco. After the creation of Israel in 1948, many Arab Jews settled there, along with other Jews from around the world. Today, the majority of Jews worldwide live in Israel and the United States.